Analysis on the main body behavior of recycling th

2022-07-24
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Analysis on the main body behavior of recycling packaging materials

1 introduction

each body of the reverse logistics supply chain of the distribution center includes not only manufacturers, manufacturers of government and packaging materials, but also manufacturers of packaging raw materials, product retailers selling and using packaging materials and final product consumers. Packaging manufacturers have a direct role in the recycling of product packaging. With the strong support of enterprises and institutions in the global aluminum industry and their enthusiastic participation in the gradual implementation of extended producer responsibility (EPR), packaging manufacturers must select a product recycling mode suitable for the future development of enterprises according to their own actual situation. Theoretically, there are two channels for packaging manufacturers to recycle: recycling by themselves or entrusting other institutions to recycle. For the packaging materials that can no longer hope to establish the national recommended standard of green logistics and rise to the national mandatory standard for direct use, the packaging material manufacturer can entrust the waste acquisition station to recycle, and then use the recycled packaging materials as raw materials for the production of new packaging materials [1]. The reusable packaging materials studied in this paper can be directly used again or reused after treatment. The process of reusing product packages from the original positive channel, that is, the recovered packages are returned to the manufacturers using the packages, cleaned, disinfected or repaired, and then re circulated to consumers. The packaging manufacturer can recycle through the distribution center or the manufacturer using the packaging, establish a reverse logistics cooperation relationship with the distribution center or the manufacturer, repair and repair the reused packaging for reuse by the distribution center or the manufacturer, and maintain a long-term cooperation relationship with the distribution center or the manufacturer

the establishment of reverse logistics for packaging material recovery is due to the need to save costs or resources on the one hand, and external factors such as political, legal and marketing needs on the other hand, involving multiple subjects [2]. The impact of each entity on the reverse logistics of the distribution center is shown in Figure 1. The external environment that affects the reverse logistics of the distribution center is controlled by laws and regulations. The box shows the reverse logistics recovery behavior among enterprises in the supply chain due to channel behavior. The policies and laws implemented by the government ① put forward various requirements for the recycling of product packaging, which played a role in promoting. The implementation of reverse logistics in the distribution center is restricted by law on the one hand, and constrained by the partnership contract of upstream enterprises on the other hand. Under the constraints of the above behaviors, the distribution center also urges retailers and consumers to participate in the recycling of product packaging through commercial behaviors. The following will systematically analyze government behavior, retailer behavior and consumer behavior

2 government behavior

government behavior has 91 important impact on reverse logistics in distribution centers. On the one hand, the purpose of government behavior is to reduce the environmental pollution caused by packaging waste and protect the ecological environment; On the other hand, it is to save the earth's resources, benefit future generations and promote the sustainable development of China's national economy. In practice, the distribution center recovers some industrial packaging that can be used directly to save costs, but rarely recovers the product packaging that needs to be recovered at a high cost [3]. Therefore, the introduction of laws and regulations on packaging recycling can have a direct impact on the reverse logistics of distribution centers. In the process of implementing packaging recycling, there is also a certain game analysis between the government and the distribution center. The government has two strategies of "punishment" and "non punishment", and the distribution center has two strategies of "recycling" and "non recycling". Therefore, the distribution center should measure its own recovery costs, benefits and penalties to decide whether to recover

there are two ways for government behavior to affect the implementation of reverse logistics of packaging materials in distribution centers: one is indirect influence, which stipulates that product manufacturers or packaging manufacturers using product packaging materials must recycle and reuse the product packaging materials. Under the pressure of the government, enterprises can entrust distribution centers to recycle through commercial activities. The other is direct impact, that is, the government stipulates that the distribution center must recycle its own and reusable product packaging. However, the impact of laws and regulations on the packaging recycling of enterprises in the supply chain depends on the nature of the packaging. The government plays a relatively small role in packaging materials that are easy to recycle, have low recycling costs, and can be used directly again, because the enterprises themselves have the driving force of recycling. For the packaging materials that are not easy to recycle but can be reused, the enterprises lack sufficient recycling power, which requires the government to adopt laws and regulations to restrict

laws and regulations have positive and negative impacts on distribution centers. The positive impact of reverse logistics carried out by the distribution center through the legal constraints of government actions is that recycling packaging materials can save the labor, transportation capacity and other related costs of purchasing new packaging materials. At the same time, long-term cooperation with upstream and downstream customers can be maintained through the recycling of packaging materials and the use of compensation or price offset to obtain long-term benefits. In addition, you can enjoy the relevant preferential policies of the government on recycling, such as tax reduction [4]. The negative impact of government actions on distribution centers is that under the constraints of laws and regulations, the recovery of some packaging materials by distribution centers will increase the cost. In fact, the recycling of packaging materials requires a certain cleaning and repair cost, which may increase the transportation cost of the distribution center, and arrange certain personnel to collect, transport, repair and other labor costs for the reuse of packaging materials, which will increase the total operating cost of the distribution center [5]. Two aspects of government influence work together. When the negative impact is greater than the positive impact, the distribution center "does not recycle", otherwise it "recycles". Only when the positive impact is greater than the negative impact, the distribution center is willing and able to recycle. Therefore, the government and the distribution center should coordinate to achieve a certain tacit understanding or balance: while the government supervises the recycling behavior, it should also provide tax incentives or other incentives for the reverse logistics of the distribution center to reduce the additional expenditure of the distribution center; Distribution centers should constantly improve their logistics level, reduce logistics costs and avoid punishment. Through the analysis of the government behavior, it can be seen that the best strategy for packaging manufacturers under the government's recycling regulations is to recycle products

3 retailer behavior

retailers belong to the downstream suppliers of the distribution center ②, which are closest to consumers. Therefore, the reverse logistics of the distribution center must give full play to the role of retailers, so as to produce the effect of centralized recycling of packaging materials in the hands of many consumers

the influence of retailers on the reverse logistics of distribution centers can also be analyzed with the principal-agent theory. After selling the products, the retailers can either dispose of the packages in their hands or send them to the distribution center for disposal, so that the reused packages can enter a new cycle. In the distribution center, select "entrust" the retailer to recycle the packaging. The retailer can choose to "recycle" or not. If the retailer does not accept it, it can sell the used packaging to the waste purchase station or dispose of it by itself. If the distribution center chooses not to entrust, the packaging belonging to the production enterprise will be recycled by the production enterprise, and the packaging belonging to the distribution center can be disposed by the distribution center itself. The way retailers choose depends mainly on whether they have a large income (low cost) from self processing or return to upstream enterprises such as distribution centers (low cost). The analysis of its selection behavior is shown in Figure 2

however, when making choices, retailers should consider not only one-time benefits, but also long-term benefits. Under the long-term cooperation with distribution centers, retailers can obtain lower purchase prices and stable supply through packaging recycling. Therefore, when the distribution center realizes reverse logistics, the retailer's best choice is to participate in recycling. Of course, if the distribution center and other institutions do not recycle the packaging, the retailer's best choice is to dispose of it by itself. Therefore, the distribution center should set up a positive and effective incentive mechanism to encourage retailers to participate in recycling. Several retailers near Xiaojiahe, Haidian District, Beijing surveyed by the author said that if upstream enterprises recycle some packaging materials, they will be willing to cooperate with the recycling. Through the recycling of these packaging materials, they can not only earn some income, but also establish some long-term customer groups and expand their sales

4 consumer behavior

the attitude of consumers with product packaging towards the used products and their packaging is mainly the awareness of environmental protection and resource conservation [6], which is related to whether the reverse logistics of the distribution center can be carried out. In order to deeply analyze the consumer behavior of packaging recycling, the author made a questionnaire about the recycling willingness of reusable product packaging. A total of 100 questionnaires were distributed, and 80 qualified questionnaires were effectively recovered. The respondents are different categories of consumers, and different groups are divided mainly according to gender, age, occupation, income and education background. The survey was conducted in universities, leisure places and supermarkets in Beijing. The purpose of the questionnaire survey is to understand consumers' attitudes towards the recycling of packaging materials and the current recycling behavior of consumers (i.e. the sample is closed, within the closed, at the intersection or outside the gauge). The main contents of the survey are the main categories of packaging materials recycled by consumers at present, the main recycling channels, consumers' handling methods of packaging materials, consumers' awareness of environmental protection and resource conservation, and whether consumers are willing to participate in the recycling of packaging materials

in the 0 questionnaires collected, the ratio of male to female is 1.1:1, and the age is between 18 and 35 years old. More than half of the respondents have a bachelor's degree and an average income of about 1500 yuan. The respondents are mainly company employees, students and self-employed. In the survey on the category of recycled packaging materials, 98.8% of consumers have participated in the recycling of packaging materials, of which 76.3% have participated in the recycling of glass packaging materials such as beer bottles, 62.5% have participated in the recycling of paper packaging materials such as cartons, 57.5% have participated in the recycling of metal packaging materials such as aluminum products, while only 8.8% have participated in the recycling of wooden packaging materials such as cosmetics and gifts, as shown in Figure 3. This is consistent with the phenomenon that a large number of gift packages such as moon cake boxes are thrown away after each festival in China. The main reason for this phenomenon is that the recycling channels of packaging materials are not perfect, which causes consumers to discard these reusable packaging materials at will. In the survey on the selection of recycling channels, 92.5% of consumers choose point of sale Recycling and waste purchase stations for recycling. At present, glass bottles such as beer bottles are mainly recycled at the point of sale. Among them, 28.8% of consumers believe that the current set of recycling channels for packaging materials is unreasonable. In the collection of opinions on the recycling channels of packaging materials, 46.3% of consumers think that it is reasonable to recycle by the point of sale or manufacturer, and 32.5% of consumers think that it is reasonable to recycle by the waste collection station. Nearly 32% of consumers said they did not understand the excessive packaging and waste of packaging materials

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