The most popular pilot project for clean heating i

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The pilot project of clean heating in northern winter started the subsidy mechanism for bulk coal treatment to be improved

before the upcoming heating in 2017, the Ministry of environmental protection, together with several ministries and commissions, issued the most stringent haze control program in history, of which bulk coal treatment is one of the priorities. The action plan for comprehensive control of air pollution in autumn and winter in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and surrounding areas points out that it is necessary to accelerate the comprehensive control of bulk coal pollution and fully complete the task of replacing coal with electricity and gas

in terms of the production scope of enterprises

"many cities are now 'one size fits all' to promote coal to electricity and coal to gas, which are supported by financial subsidies. This model is unsustainable." On August 31, daiyande, director of the Energy Research Institute of the national development and Reform Commission, told China business daily

In May, 2017, the Ministry of finance, the Ministry of housing and urban rural development, the Ministry of environmental protection and the Energy Administration jointly issued a document to launch the pilot work of central finance to support clean heating in winter in the northern region, covering six provinces (cities) including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong and Henan. Within the three-year demonstration period, the central government will arrange subsidies and awards. The municipalities directly under the central government will pay 1billion yuan a year, provincial capital cities 700million yuan and prefecture level cities 500million yuan, Support the conversion of bulk coal heating to clean energy heating

"now local governments are gritting their teeth and insisting." Xumingchao, director of the Technology Promotion Department of cecep Consulting Co., Ltd., said that even if the local governments get the central financial funds, they often can not get the local supporting funds to promote the reduction and replacement of bulk coal and clean heating

at present, the company is entrusted by the national development and Reform Commission to investigate the reduction of bulk coal in Beijing Tianjin Hebei region

bulk coal combustion is an important source of air pollution, especially in northern winter. "According to the research of Tsinghua University and other units, for Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, the contribution of the civil sector to PM2.5 pollution in winter is nearly half, and these contributions are mainly from the pollutants emitted from the combustion of solid fuels such as bulk coal." Lei Yu, researcher of the Environmental Planning Institute of the Ministry of environmental protection, introduced

since the release of the "ten articles of atmosphere" in 2013, various regions have gradually introduced the reduction and substitution of bulk coal and the promotion of clean technology, and at the same time put forward different amounts of subsidies for coal to electricity, coal to gas and clean briquette

xumingchao found that the construction investment of replacing coal with gas needs 150-160 yuan/square meter, the operating cost per square meter in one heating season needs 15-30 yuan, the initial investment of replacing coal with electricity exceeds 200 yuan/square meter, and the operating cost in one heating season reaches 30 yuan/square meter. At the second China bulk coal comprehensive treatment conference on August 31, xumingchao introduced the survey and found that "without the support of government subsidies, power generation and gas generation of coal are completely uncompetitive."

"most residents are concerned about whether the technology is easy to use and whether the price is cheap. For example, it used to cost only 500 yuan to burn bulk coal. Now it is replaced by electricity and gas, but it costs 1500 yuan. No matter how good it is." Xumingchao found that in some poor counties, even if the natural gas pipeline is connected, the residents will demolish it the next year and continue to burn loose coal

"in the past heating season, 4000 yuan was enough to burn loose coal. Now, 5000-6000 yuan is needed for electricity, and several fixed companies have to buy electricity, which makes rural users feel troublesome." Lijingming, chief expert of the agricultural ecology and nature protection station of the Ministry of agriculture, introduced that he had found many cases in Hebei and Tianjin that would rather not be subsidized than burn loose coal

"there are more than 20 poor counties in Hebei Province. How can there be sufficient financial support?" Lijingming said that due to insufficient funds, there is a large subsidy gap between regions. In addition, if subsidies are issued this year, there will be uncertainty about whether there will be subsidies next year and how much. There is a risk of policy discontinuity

policy discontinuity is not an isolated case. This is also the case with clean coal, which also relies on government subsidies. Zhou Yong, deputy director of the Institute of science and technology development strategy of Shandong Academy of Sciences, introduced that Shandong originally planned to replace more than 3 million tons of bulk coal with clean coal and blue carbon. However, after the policy was implemented for a period of time, the price of the first two increased, and finally only replaced more than 1.6 million tons. Now the policy of Shandong Province is to replace coal with gas

Peking University organized students to investigate the control of bulk coal in Hebei. The students found that clean briquette was promoted in the surveyed area last year, and the policy this year changed from coal to gas. "This will result in a waste of investment."

the investment of resident users is only one aspect. As the power and natural gas pipelines in some rural areas are not perfect or even lacking, it is also necessary to promote the "coal to gas" and "coal to electricity" infrastructure investment

zhouqinggen, chief engineer of the electric energy substitution research center of North China Electric Power University, introduced that electricity should be substituted for coal, and the cumulative investment in power distribution construction and transformation during the 13th Five Year Plan period should not be less than 1.7 trillion yuan. "Rural areas must be rebuilt, and it is very difficult for mountainous areas to go in." Zhouqinggen said that this part of investment will be made by the power supply department. Although the investment will not be directly transferred to the users, it may raise the average electricity price

natural gas pipeline also needs huge investment. Recently, the national development and Reform Commission and the National Energy Administration jointly issued the medium and long term oil and gas pipeline plan, proposing that the total mileage of China's natural gas pipelines will be 163000 km by 2025. According to the relevant person in charge of the basic industry department of the national development and Reform Commission, "at present, the cost of one kilometer (natural gas pipeline) is about 10million yuan." However, the official expansion does not mean that "air is delivered to households" and "the last kilometer" still needs to be solved by various cities

long term support mechanism to be established

an important problem for the control of bulk coal is that the bottom number is unclear. Experts said that at present, all the data on how much bulk coal is consumed each year are calculated. This also makes it difficult for local governments to implement in detail when formulating alternative policies for bulk coal reduction

according to the 2017 survey report on China's bulk coal governance released on August 31, China's bulk coal consumption in 2015 was about 750million tons, including about 234 million tons of domestic coal, about 220 million tons of small boilers, about 236million tons of small industrial kilns, and about 60 million tons of other incomplete statistics

wangqingyi, a researcher at the Coal Information Research Institute, believes that this figure is recognized by 2. Metal material experimental instruments; Underestimated, "does not include industrial enterprises' own power plants." According to his estimation, in 2016, the combustion of bulk coal without pollution control exceeded 1.2 billion tons

Wu Yin, a special researcher of the counsellor's office of the State Council, once pointed out that China's civil coal is basically decentralized combustion, and environmental protection measures such as dust removal and desulfurization can be taken if the mining stroke is not within the standard range. The pollutants emitted by the combustion of 1 ton of bulk coal are 5-10 times that of thermal coal

according to Li Jingming, who has been engaged in rural energy research for more than 30 years, coal accounts for 40%, firewood 17%, straw 13%, electric power 9%, oil 7%, liquefied gas 6% and solar energy 3%. "There are many channels to obtain bulk coal, and the cost is relatively low. In a few years, bulk coal will be the preferred energy form widely used."

coverage from product design, Xuwei, President of the Environmental Energy Institute of China Academy of Building Sciences, said that at present, the scope of heating in China is expanding, not only in the north, but also in hot summer and cold winter areas; Moreover, the heating standard is improving. Thirty years ago, the room temperature in winter was about 16 degrees, twenty years ago it was 18 degrees, now it is 20 degrees, and it will change in the future; The liberalization of the two-child policy will also increase household heating demand. Many experts speculate that the consumption of bulk coal will increase

in the opinion of experts, the biggest constraint for 2+26 cities is investment. In the case that the consumption of bulk coal will increase and it is difficult to replace and market clean technology, it is very important to establish a long-term and effective support mechanism

"in 2017, we can achieve some goals of reducing and replacing bulk coal, but can we maintain them in 2018, 2019, 2020 and beyond?" Lijingming believes that we should go step by step and find diversified solutions

adjusting measures to local conditions, energy efficiency first

the 2017 Research Report on China's bulk coal governance believes that by 2020, China's bulk coal consumption will be able to reduce by more than 200million tons, of which 110million tons will be reduced, 70million tons will be replaced, and 20million tons will be used cleanly. But how to implement it is a problem

"at present, there are many alternative technologies for bulk coal, as well as a lot of energy-saving and low emission equipment. The government is very blind, so it may not be able to choose the right one. The market is mixed, so it is afraid that it will be useless to spend money." Qianfajun, director of the ecological environment research center of Henan Academy of Sciences, said that local governments are also very confused

Shan Ming, a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of thermal engineering of Tsinghua University, believes that in rural areas, retail investors are basically burning loose coal, which can only be controlled at the combustion end. Some stoves burn coal with similar emissions as natural gas, but this kind of stoves costs 5000 yuan. "A few years ago, Hebei Province promoted low emission stoves, with prices ranging from 700 yuan to 1500 yuan. However, the technology of such stoves is not in place, and their performance is not so good, so they can not achieve low emissions." Shan Ming said that if high-tech standard stoves are applied, pollutants such as PM2.5 can be reduced by more than 95%

in addition, building energy conservation contributes greatly to building heating. According to Xu Wei, without increasing the basic heating capacity, the heating area in Beijing has increased by about 40% to 50%, because the demand has decreased

however, rural houses have not implemented building energy efficiency standards. "In terms of planning, there are no mandatory energy-saving regulations on how to build houses." Xu Wei said, "if we simply improve the thermal insulation of doors, windows and walls of rural buildings, we can reduce energy consumption by half. If we continue to improve, we can reduce energy consumption by 70% to 80%. This has made a great contribution to coal control, but this is often ignored."

Xu Wei believes that this transformation requires strong policy guidance and appropriate subsidies from the government, because the vast majority of rural areas do not have the financial resources to do this transformation

Dai Yande believes that all measures to control bulk coal should be prioritized, and improving energy efficiency is the first energy. "Let's see how much energy conservation can be reduced in different regions. We'll give it a solution for the rest. This solution should correspond to downstream emissions." Daiyande said that the industrial waste heat can be used for heating. For example, the waste heat of a steel plant in Qianxi County, Hebei Province can meet the heating needs of the whole county, and the boiler rooms in the whole county are all closed. "Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei can be built. Like electric power, the problem lies in the system."

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